Feb 06

Welcome to my Blog!

Welcome and thank you for taking time to visit my website.

The purpose of this blog is to provide drawing reference to all engineers, technicians, industrial electricians and students, concerning modification and conversion of electrical diagrams of various machines and equipments. My purpose constantly is to be as open as possible. Share to all whatever technical experience information that I have as widely as possible. I do however realize how important technical reference is. Outdated electrical plan and wiring diagram be supposed to modify for the reason that an improvement to machine and equipment are essential to efficient production operation of the plant.

My website is not complete although be sure to check back as more and more post and great content gets added to my site. Hope you find the content informative and have significant value. Please leave your feedback and share your thoughts with me, I love to hear what you say.


Apr 11

Reduce Voltage Motor Control Connection

Main Picture_001




Electric motor controls do an important role in almost manufacturing company’s production process. Excellent design both in theoretical and application is becoming more important in order to ensure cost-effective operations as follows;

  1. To optimize the use of operating system in terms of power management.
  2. Reduce maintenance cost on all machinery and equipment.
  3. Increase dependability by upgrading the control and protective relaying.

For a three phase induction motor, reduce voltage connection is needed for the reason that on the time of starting, if induction motor is started directly on line, it will draw high starting current which causes harm to adjoining machinery and equipment.

Large induction motor rated from 15 horsepower and above require a reduce voltage control in order to reduce the inrush current due to starting torque.

Four types of reduce voltage technique are in use once an electrical engineer design a motor control;

  1. Wye-Delta connection
  2. Auto transformer method
  3. Primary resistor starting
  4. Direct On-line (DOL) using soft starter and inverter.

The importance of using reduce voltage circuit motor connection:

Starting current is usually high because of inertia. High current produce at starting causes voltage fluctuation, power loss and stress to the control system and machinery equipment. There are method in limiting the high starting current.

  1. Reduce the applied voltage
  2. Increase the rotor resistance

Wye-Delta motor control circuit:

The most common reduce voltage switching method is wye-delta control connection, for the reason that this motor starting have a straightforward circuit diagram, low cost of electrical parts for application, can drive high rated horsepower motor with low friction and can reduce starting torque.

Note: The circuit diagram for wye-delta you found here are in PDF form design by me. The modification design depends on designer approach for motor circuit control. The most important thing is the operational accuracy or correct chain of operation, to avoid motor from serious damage due to short circuit and incorrect connection.

1.   Wye-Delta Circuit:               =         Wye-Delta Single Line Diagram.pdf

2.   Wye-Delta Main Circuit:     =         Main Circuit.pdf

3.   Wye-Delta Control Circuit:  =       Control Circuit.pdf


Mar 21

Industrial Overhead Crane

Industrial Overhead Crane



Overhead crane is a kind of machine which is permanently fixed in placed overhead, for the purposed of lifting huge and heavy objects which cannot be moved easily by hand. This type of crane is very expensive and able of moving enormous quantity of materials.

The most common overhead crane use is in steel industry, on every step of manufacturing procedure. From scrap steel next to molten metal then finally to billet steel as finish product intended for rolling mills as raw materials in producing different kind of steel bars.

Make use of overhead cranes on steel industry be important on every step of plant operation. Beginning with loading metal scrap in charging basket using overhead cranes equipped with electromagnet, carry afterward via charging overhead crane to electric arc furnace for processing and refining. As soon as it reach the required temperature, molten metal decant to ladle taken by means of high capacity tapping overhead cranes. Transport the molten metal to continuous casting machine to produce finish billet steel. Loading overhead crane lift up the billet steel and place inside the delivery truck.


Operators who handle this type of overhead crane have got to undertake rigid training and familiarization of machine. Company sponsored seminars educate operators for effective and safe operation of overhead crane, both in theoretical and in actual application.

Operation guidelines should be enforce through;

Control familiarization, by knowing their location and their function.

Equipment daily inspection before use.

Marking and labeling of all electrical controls.

Testing the overhead crane by moving it briefly in every direction that it travels.

Checking all limit switch for both the upper and lower hoist.


The benefits of performing daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly routine inspection and maintenance, on every overhead crane;

Lower the cost on repairs, including expediting cost and airfreight bills when purchasing parts replacement.

Decrease equipment operation downtime due to breakdown.

Give the company an advance notice of equipment condition for future and existing maintenance budget requirements.

Maintenance cost savings budget alone, can be sufficient to allow for future upgrade and replacement.

Mechanical section: Some parts can be fabricated locally with the same materials use as compared to original parts.

Electrical section: Most parts are imported and not available in local market, an upgrade and revision to electrical plan should act upon provided that operation and protection relaying is similar to original electrical diagram and to make use of parts available in local market.

All electrical diagram listed below be upgraded or revise with respect to our plant environment design.

Overhead Crane No.2:                                        OHC No.2.pdf

Overhead Crane No.7:                                        OHC No.7.pdf

Overhead Crane ABUS – Revise No.1:            OHC=Abus Revise No.1.pdf

Overhead Crane ABUS – Revise:                     OHC=Abus Revise.pdf

Overhead Crane ABUS – Push Button:           OHC=Abus.PB.pdf

Overhead Crane DEMAG – Revise:                 OHC=Demag Revise.pdf

Overhead Crane – Electrical Cable Data:      OHC=Electrical Cable Data.pdf

Overhead Crane – Magnet Control Circuit:    OHC=Magnet Control Ckt.pdf

Overhead Crane – Magnet Panel No.1:         OHC=Magnet Panel No.1.pdf

Overhead Crane – Magnet Panel No.2:         OHC=Magnet Panel No.2.pdf

Overhead Crane – Magnet Revise No.1:       OHC=Magnet Revise No.1.pdf

Overhead Crane – Revise No.2:                      OHC=Revise No.2.pdf














Mar 01

ASU and VPSAO Industrial Oxygen Plant


Purified oxygen or liquefied oxygen is essential for manufacturing steel. It is utilize for meltdown and refining scrap metal, The desired temperature achieve faster after lancing the scrap metal with liquefied oxygen.

Early on the year of 1990’s, our company put up a pressure swing adsorption oxygen plant. “PSAO”. A technology use to separate oxygen from atmospheric air under pressure at near ambient temperatures and so varies from “ASU” Air separating unit, where air separates into its primary component “Oxygen and Nitrogen” by means of cryogenic distillation.

Company have a problem of increasing billet steel production for the reason that a growing demand of liquefied oxygen required, intended for steel meltdown and refining. External source of oxygen is the momentary solution to a continuous plant operation. PSAO inability of generating at least 95 percent of oxygen purity is our main difficulty.

Advance technology of producing liquefied oxygen is the key strategy of solving our reliance on using external source. Management determined to acquire “ASU” Air Separating Unit, where liquefied oxygen can be process by means of cryogenic distillation. ASU structure erection commences in the year 2009 and production began last year of 2010.

Have a number of potential hazard of operating ASU includes electrical control malfunction, gases under pressure, very low temperature, and the ability of oxygen to accelerate combustion. Unless proper preventive maintenance must be perform every day to prevent industrial accident.

The company realizes that PSA must be upgraded to provide support to ASU while it is under preventive or corrective maintenance. Consultant suggested converting it from VPSA “Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption”. VPSA use a feed blower compared to PSA using air compressor to supply air to the system. Power savings in VPSA is typically cost effective and perfect for steel smelting plants that require very large oxygen producing capacities.

Operating and Maintenance Procedure:

Maintenance department shall give written procedures to all operator and maintenance personnel, how to start, operate, and shutdown each equipment machinery.

Preventive or corrective maintenance should be prepared for each equipment and work frequencies should be based initially on manufacturer’s recommendation and historical data.

Equipment or operation process can be made remotely by using SCADA “Supervisory control and data acquisition”. Security protection through password and software security protocols shall be allowed to ensure that only authorized personnel can make changes.

Electrical maintenance be required to perform daily for the reason that power fluctuation or instability can damaged computer-base control systems. To reduce the impact of the alleged condition on the control system, proposal must be submitted to management the use of proper power apparatus such as voltage regulators and uninterruptible power supplies “UPS”. Electrical field instruments such as demand monitor shall be installed, to account for power loss and ensure safe equipment shutdown and isolation.

Electrical diagrams must be updated all time when electrical personnel perform upgrading to electrical control system.

A revision of ASU and VPSAO electrical diagram listed hereunder in PDF form;

ASU = Air Separating Unit

ASU Layout1 (1)_001



ASU-cooling tower.pdf



VPSAO = Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption Oxygen

VPSAO Layout1 (1)_001

PLC to PANEL-connect.pdf

VPSAO-control ckt.pdf


VPSAO-parts #1.pdf

VPSAO-parts #2.pdf


ASU and VPSAO = Power System

ASU-VPSAO-power system Layout1 (1)_001

ASU-VPSAO-power system.pdf






Feb 20


Atlas Copco Layout1 (1)


Compressor plays an important role in industrial plant operation. A machine/equipment that use to deliver compress air on every automated pneumatic instrument device. With respect to 24 hours daily operation of the plant, our company is determined to acquire the best type of equipment that compresses ambient air using a rotary motion.

Recommendation by foreign consultant, that an oiled cooled rotary screw compressor is the precise choice of equipment for our plant operation. Have load/unload electrical control design characteristic and remains continuously powered. However when the demand for compressed air attain the calibrated set point, instead of stopping the compressor the inlet valve is closed, unloading the compressor. This kind of operation reduces the number of start/stop cycles for electrical motors, in excess of start/stop electrical control scheme, thus improving service life with a minimal change in operating cost.

Our company decided to procure Atlas Copcos oil-cooled rotary screw compressor on the basis of strong capacity and dependability in delivering compressed air for general industrial application.

However the only difficulty is the electrical control they provided to us, for the reason that, illustration of electrical diagram is in (DIN) Deutsches Institut für Normung otherwise a translation in English needed, they call it, “German Institute of Standardization”. Typically some electrical practitioner here in our plant be familiar with (ANSI) American National Standards Institute and (IEC) International Electrotechnical Commission. The company foreign electrical consultant tell me, to convert the electrical plan similar to ANSI or IEC and inclusion to some modification he make to the electrical diagram, will serve as guideline on equipment troubleshooting and repair.


All electrical diagram listed below, are in PDF form;

Compressor No. 1                   =  Atlas Copco-GA90-315.pdf

Compressor No.2                    =  Atlas Copco-GA90-FF.pdf

Compressor Data Installed   =   Compressor Data.pdf


Feb 15

Industrial Dust Collector Plant



Industrial Dust Collector Plant


Effective preventive and corrective maintenance is essential to protect the steel plant from operation downtime, due to the failure of automated equipment. Engineer’s and maintenance personnel, undertake the challenge on how to pinpoint the most gainful and efficient technique of providing, That maintenance to all machine/apparatuses within the manufacturing plant.

The step on making your plant as safe as possible is to perform a hazard analysis on your plant processes. The manager and owner in our company is hiring an independent consultant to do this analysis for the reason that, an outside expert opinion are more direct and forceful without worrying about job security. Foreign consultant are usually more experienced and meticulous.

Previous step should lead to working with a qualified team to develop and employ a combination of corrective maintenance, upgrade and design as well following the guidelines in operating procedures that will prevent or diminish plant accident, for instance fire and explosion.

Electrical control upgrade such as acquiring a range of sensor and detection like vibration monitoring that will help identifying rapid increases in machine pulsation that could lead to a disastrous failure.

This article serves not only as reference but as a warning to maintenance and operators who do not see the value of preventive and corrective maintenance but also if used correctly, can prevent such costly and risky plant failures.

Electrical Controls in PDF form please check hereunder;

DCP No.1&2 – Panel                     =     DCP 1&2 Panel.pdf 

DCP No.1 – 20 Tons                      =    DCP No.1=20T.pdf

DCP No.2 – 25 Tons                      =    DCP No.2=25T.pdf

DCP No.2 – Powerhouse             =    DCP No.2=Power house.pdf

DCP No.3 – Project 1                    =    DCP No.3 Project1-Layout.pdf

DCP No.3 – 220VAC-Controls    =    DCP No.3-220VAC Controls.pdf

DCP No.3 – Pneumatic               =    DCP No.3-Pneumatic.pdf

DCP No.3 – Project 2                  =    DCP No.3-Project2-layout.jpg














Feb 11

Continuous Casting Machine



A continuous casting machine is a equipment/device used to cast molten steel metal in an ongoing stream of production operation.

Casting begin when molten metal was inside the ladle that previously have been melted in a large furnace (EAF). It was delivered to continuous casting machine (CCM) and place in the ladle stand. Teeming unit was attached to the ladle gate to control the flow of molten metal to travel into the tundish, which is a larger bowl in the casting machine and to closed it if the tundish is full. Tundish allows the molten metal onto copper mold attached on oscillation table machine that shapes the metal onto it’s final stage. Roller water spray are used right after the mold to further shape and push the molten metal, these usually keep the metal straight and in shape, because the rollers are cooled with water, it will begin and solidifying the metal. The continuous casting machine finishing the metal at this point and it is pulled from by means of dummy bar machine.

A continuous casting machine in steel smelting plant, only make strand (Steel Billet Strand) because they are easy to mold and make continuously. This is one of the accident prone area in smelting plant, if the implementation of maintenance is poor. Maintenance personnel must rectify and correct the machine poor performance to avoid accident.

The latest continuous casting machine installed by foreign company in China have the latest technology in electrical and mechanical equipment. On the contrary, we have the problem concerning electrical plan and detail, it was written in chinese character. The symbols used in the drawing is not ISO certified. The electrical department keep complaining of how they can troubleshoot or repair the machine if they cannot read or interpret the electrical diagram they provided to us. Electrical consultant informed me to revise the plan including the electrical circuit he modified.

All electrical plan done by me is in PDF form, please check below;

Auto Torch (Mechanical)  =  Auto Torch-Mechanical.pdf

CCM No.1 (AG Control)    =  CCM No.1=AG.pdf 

CCM No.1 (AL Control)    =  CCM No.1=AL.pdf

CCM No.1 (AS Control)    =  CCM No.1=AS.pdf

CCM No.1 (PC Control)   =  CCM No.1=PC.pdf

CCM No.1 (Pre Control)   =  CCM No.1=Pre.pdf

CCM No.1 (Auto Cut Control)   =  CCM No.1=Cutting Torch.pdf

CCM No.1 (Steam Exhaust Control)   =  CCM No.1=Steam Exhaust.pdf

CCM No.2 (Dummy Bar/Hydraulic Control)   =  CCM No.2=Dummy Bar-Hydraulic.pdf

CCM No.2 (Hydraulic Unit Control   =  CCM No.2=Hydraulic Unit.pdf

CCM No.2 (Panel)   =  CCM No.2=Panel.pdf

CCM No.2 (Main Control)   =  CCM No.2Control.pdf





Feb 09

Electric Arc Furnace

Charging of Scrap


Classification: Alternating Current (AC)




In my former steel smelting company the Arc Transformer primary input is 13,800 VAC. The furnace itself has three electrode. Electrodes are round in section, and typically in segments with threaded couplings, so that as the electrodes wear, new segments can be added. The arc forms between the charged material and the electrode, the charge is heated both by current passing through the charge and by the radiant energy evolved by the arc. The electrodes are automatically raised and lowered by a positioning system, with the use of hydraulic cylinders. The regulating system maintains approximately constant current and power input during the melting of the charge, event hough the scrap may move under the electrode as it melts. The mast arms holding the electrodes carry heavy busbars, a hollow water-cooled copper pipes carrying current to the electrode holders.Since the electrodes moved up and down automatically for regulation of the arc, and are raised to allow removal of the furnace roof, heavy water-cooled cables connect the bus tubes/arms with the arc transformer located adjacent to the furnace. To protect the arcs transformer from heat and dirt, it is installed in a room vault.

The furnace is built on a tilting platform so that the molten liquid steel can be poured into ladle vessel for transport to CCM (Continuous Casting Machine) for finish product.


Electrical (Control and Automation):

The original electrical plan was revised, updated and detailed by me, to ensured the excellent quality maintenance performed by electrical personnel. The files are in PDF form please check hereunder;

Arc Transformer:  =  Arc Transformer.pdf

Facoder:  =  Facoder.pdf

Hydraulic:  =  EAF-Hydraulic.pdf

Regulation Motor:  =  EAF-Regulation Motor.pdf




Feb 09

Electric Power System

Disconnect SwitchGas Circuit Breaker SF6 (Live Tank) Metering Switch yard 69kV20 MVA Sub-station Switch yard

Electrical Power System

Category: Industrial


Our electrical system that has been operating for 25 years, the more honest-to-goodness maintenance is needed

to sustain continuous operation, But decent maintenance (other than wiping, air-blowing or cleaning the externals

of the equipment and apparatuses) cannot be done if there is no degree of redundancy in the electrical system,

Chances are, maintenance time would only be a few hours usually allocated during scheduled plant-wide annual

shutdowns. In this case, maintenance becomes superficial and hasty as production department would be

scratching their backs when schedule to re-start operation has come.

So then , maintenance can’t be effective if the plant itself is not designed to be ’maintainable’, The electrical power

system configuration must be maintenance- friendly such that maintaining major equipment does not mean

shutting down the plant. If maintenance requires shutting down the plant , so then the plant is

“not maintainable”. If continuous round-the-clock operation  of all or some identifiable parts of the process

is required, then electrical power system configuration must have redundant feeders or separate supplies to

these components to support maintenance at other portions of the system. The power system must also be

flexible in events of failures of major equipment such that the plant can still operate partially in a considerable

production capacity.

As we all know in general ’An electric power system is a network of electrical components used to

supply, transmit, and use electric power’. Our plant electric power supply structure normally includes

equipment that not only controls the flow of power, but also make it impossible to disengage from

a main power source and switch to an auxiliary source when and as needed.

My Vision:

How to create an updated plan that will serve as reference guide to our plant electrical personnel.

It is a major task without the assistance of two electrical personnel. ’Mr. Chen and Mr. Renato Galimbas”.

They assist me with respect to load computation and mapping of all equipment/apparatuses, that lead to

the creation of updated detail plan.

Our work accomplishment in PDF form. Please check hereunder;


Sub-station: =  20 & 40MVA.pdf

Sub-station Cable Marking: =  Cable Marking.pdf

2000 kVA Distribution Transformer: =  2000kVA.pdf

3000 kVA Distribution Transformer: =  3000 kVA.pdf





Feb 07

Industrial Water Treatment Plant

CT2  aP03A-3C  a


In accordance to the rules and regulations from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, proper industrial water treatment is important for all manufacturing plant to operate efficiently, and to protect the health of workers. In instances where the industry is manufacturing water-intensive goods, proper water treatment is needed to ensure safe, effective products.

The main purpose used for industrial water treatment is to manage wastewater disposal, microbiological growth, scaling, and corrosion. Corrosion occurs when the metals, particularly in piping and pumps, begin to oxidize. Rust, for example, is a form of corrosion. These negative effects of the metal are able to trigger rust build-ups that make water difficult to pump through pipes and leaks which can lead to major malfunctions.

Scaling occurs when the minerals in the water accumulate on the pipes, causing a thickening of the pipe wall and a narrowing of the pipe’s interior. Because industrial cooling water stays warm, it provides a good environment for harmful microbes to grow, so this water must be treated to prevent outbreaks of disease.

Industrial water treatment for cooling water traditionally uses chlorination to prevent the growth of microbes; several green alternatives are available, such as ozone generators. Cooling water also needs anti-corrosion chemicals such as zinc-phosphates, anti scaling chemicals, and anti-foaming agents to prevent wear and tear on the cooling water piping and cooling towers.

A proper maintenance and treatment can reduce corrosion to machinery and equipment such as water pumps, pipes, cooling towers etc. Electric motors must have a proper preventive maintenance to ensure the smooth and continuous operation of the plant.

Emphasis is placed on the need for a good electrical design and installation to reduce power cost consumption and operation downtime. Electrical personnel must performs skilled electrical work in the installation, maintenance, repair and testing of power generating and distribution equipment.

Electrical plans and details listed below in PDF form may serve as reference guidelines for other electrical practitioner engaged in this work.


1.  WTP   No.2   =   WTP No.2.pdf

2.  WTP   No.3   =   WTP No.3.pdf